Preamble: The Haematology Society of Bangladesh is the successor of Bangladesh Society of Haematology, which was formed on 31/08/1999 under the leadership of late Professor Dr. Mohammad Abdur Rashid, the pioneer haematologist in Bangladesh. This society is a representative organization and voice for all of the haematologists of Bangladesh. The health service system in this country has achieved an enormous advancement after liberation and is advancing rapidly to achieve the international standard. However, still a large number of people are lacking standard haematological treatment due to poverty, lack of public awareness and optimized education being amongst the reasons. The Haematology Society of Bangladesh is to run all its activities to create general awareness about the nature, prevalence, prevention and management of the haematological disorders among Bangladeshi population along with the maintenance of spirit of unity among the haematologists of Bangladesh with protecting their interests and dignity. The society is committed to provide it as an organization to the patients of haematological and related disorders, to serve the nation with optimum skill and confidence, to contribute to further improvement of medical education in Bangladesh targeting an international standard, and to mobilize resources, knowledge and initiatives about the field of haematology to doctors and other health providers and the public.
Article I. Name of the Organization: The full name of the society in both English and Bangla shall be ‘Haematology Society of Bangladesh’ (হেমাটোলজি সোসাইটি অব বাংলাদেশ).
Article II. Language: The society shall have two official languages: Bangla and English. Bangla meaning of the constitution shall be used if there is any dispute between the Bangla and English versions.
Article III. Registered Office: The registered office of the society shall be located in Dhaka.
Article IV. Logo: The following coloured symbol shall be used to aid and to promote instant public recognition of the society. It contains a stick with a drop of blood at the top surrounded by a snake over a background of a peripheral blood film, and the whole picture is surrounded by two leafs of crops, one on each side, and the words ‘HAEMATOLOGY SOCIETY OF BANGLADESH Established: 1999’ at the bottom.
Article V. Aims and Objectives: The following are the aims and objectives of the society-
(1) The society will seek to inculcate and maintain the spirit of unity, solidarity, fellow feelings and brotherly cooperation among the haematologists of Bangladesh.
(2) The society will seek to establish and protect the interests, rights and privileges of the haematologists in Bangladesh upholding their honour and dignity.
(3) The society will create general awareness about the nature, prevalence, prevention and management of the haematological disorders among Bangladeshi population.
(4) The society will enlighten the nation about the fact that haematology is an independent discipline of medical science worldwide and therefore the haematological disorders can be best dealt with a haematologist.
(5) The society will seek to provide an organization to the patients suffering from haematological and related disorders to own them and to serve the nation with optimum skill and confidence.
(6) The society will organize and support studies and training on haematological disease to contribute to further improvement of education in medical science in Bangladesh.
(7) The society will mobilize resources, knowledge, initiatives and efficiencies on priority basis to improve training on haematology at all times.
(8) The society will assist, cooperate, affiliate and join in federation with national and international organization holding similar aims and objectives.
(9) All means of mass communication will be exploited to achieve the objectives including publishing and circulating papers, journals and periodicals, books, pamphlets, website etc.
Article VI. Interpretation in the Constitution: Where not contradictory to the subject of context, the following words and expressions have the readings hereinafter assigned to them receptivity:
(1) ‘Society’ means the Haematology Society of Bangladesh.
(2) ‘Regulation’ means the regulations contained in this constitution with modifications from time to time as may be in forced.
(3) ‘Executive Committee’ means the controlling and representative authority of the Society.
(4) ‘Member’ means general member and life member of the Society defined hereinafter.
(5) ‘General Body’ means the supreme body of the Society as defined in the constitution.
(6) ‘Journal’ means the Journal of the Society to be published authorized body.
(7) ‘Commission’ means the election commission appointed to handle the election of the Executive Committee.
Article VII. Members:
Section 7.01 Classification of members: The membership of the Society shall be of three categories-
(1) Life Members: They shall be the permanent members of the society. They have the voting right for the election of the executive committee of the Society and for all resolutions put forward at any of the general meeting of the Society.
(2) General Members: They shall be temporary members for a period of subscription. They have the voting right as that of life members during their period of subscription.
(3) Associate Members: They are the members of the society without having the voting rights as that of the life members and the general members.
Section 7.02 Eligibility for Membership:
(1) Life Members: Any medical graduate having an MBBS or equivalent degree along with an FCPS or MD or equivalent degree in haematology from any university or institute recognized by the regulatory body of the country of origin subjected to be recognized by Bangladesh Medical and Dental council.
(2) General Members: Persons having the same qualification as that of a life member.
(3) Associate Members: Any doctor or post-graduate student of haematology or other subject closely related to or having special interest to haematology orany social worker who can help for the development of the haematology in the country.
Section 7.03 Rights and Privileges of a Member: All members shall be entitled the following rights and privileges –
(1) The right to get publications of the Society either free or with charges fixed by the Society.
(2) The right to use the reading room and the library of the Society.
(3) The right to attend and take part in all clinical meeting, lectures and demonstrations, and all other academic and social activities organized by the Society.
(4) The right to obtain all other privileges conferred by the Society.
Section 7.04 Liabilities of a Member: A member shall be subjected to the rules and regulations of the Society and shall contribute to the assets of the Society including the debts and liabilities contracted during the period of his/her membership.
Section 7.05 Register of the Members: There shall be a register to enroll the names of all the members of the Society with their qualifications, address and other details
Section 7.06 Subscription of Membership: After paying the subscription fee determined by the executive committee and with describing the type and period of subscription, an eligible person can apply in a prescribed form or in a way as directed by the executive committee for membership to the president; the membership shall be subjected to be approved by the executive committee.
Section 7.07 Duration and Termination of Membership: Every member shall remain a member until his/her membership has been terminated in accordance with the period of subscription and with the regulations hereinafter contained. The membership may be terminated in any of the following ways-
(1) Termination due to Non-Payment of Dues: If the subscription fee for membership or the share of the debt of the Society is not paid within 3 months after due date, the executive committee can terminate his/her membership. However, before termination, the member shall be notified about his/her default at least 30 days’ time to clear up the dues.
(2) Removal on Grounds of Misconduct: If the conduct of any member is reported to be prejudicial to the interest of the Society or of medical profession according to the BMDC rules, the executive committee shall ask the member to submit a written explanation about his/her allegation. If the explanation is found unsatisfactory to the executive committee, the member may be asked either to apologize or to resign from the Society. If the said member refuses either to apologize or to resign or even to submit an explanation to defend him/her, an inquiry team shall be formed by the executive committee and he/she may be expelled from the Society or punished otherwise according to the proposal of the inquiry committee with a decision finalized by the executive committee.
(3) Termination by Resignation: A member can resign from the Society at any time by giving a 30 days’ notice in written to the president after payment of all dues. During considering the resignation letter, the executive committee shall enquire about the dues that shall have to be paid.
Section 7.08 Re-Eligibility of Membership: Re-eligibility for membership requires all the following criteria –
(1) In case of termination due to non-payment, the membership may be readmitted from the date cessation of the membership after the payment of the dues and/or the shared liabilities.
(2) In case of termination due to resignation, the membership may be readmitted after submitting a clarification of resignation or apology that shall be satisfactory to the Executive Committee and after payment of any due.
(3) In case of termination due to misconduct, the person shall wait for at least 5 years from the date of expulsion or provided the application is supported by at least 10 existing life members testifying to his/her good conduct during the interim period.
Article VIII. General Body:
Section 8.01 Formation of General Body: It consists of all the life and general members of the Society.
Section 8.02 Functions and Power of the General Body: The general body is the supreme policy making body to discuss, direct and regulate every affairs of the Society shall have power as follows-
(1) To frame, alter and repeal rules and laws of the Society.
(2) To elect the members of the executive committee.
(3) To take decision on any matters covered or not covered by the rules or constitution.
(4) The decision of the General Body in any matters shall be final andshall be binding on the executive committee.
Section 8.03 Meeting of the General Body: The meetings of the general body and the procedure of holding those meetings will be follows-
(1) General Meeting: The general body shall meet for any issue as per rule as such date, time and place as determined by executive committee.
(2) Requisition Meeting: Requisition meeting can be called by at least 10 members with clearly stating the business for any important issue if the executive committee fails to conduct such important issue.
Section 8.04 Notification for General Body Meeting: Clearly describing the place, date and time with the agenda of business to be transacted, all the members shall have to be notified at least 15 days before a general meeting and at least 30 days before a requisition meeting. The notice can be served to the members through national media, journal, mail, email, messenger or any other means suitable in terms of time and expense. Except national media, it shall be sent to the last known address or phone number of the member appearing in the members’ register.
Section 8.05 Quorum of General Body Meeting: Quorum of general meeting shall be one half and for requisition meeting shall be two third of the members of the Society. In absence of quorum, a general meeting shall stand adjourned to be recalled and the date, time and place will be fixed in that meeting, but a requisition meeting shall be dissolved without any result.
Section 8.06 Business to be transacted at General Body Meeting:
(1) The election of the executive committee if necessary.
(2) Confirmation of minutes of the last annual general meeting.
(3) Adoption of the annual general report by the secretary general of the previous year.
(4) Adoption of the treasurer’s report and the audited accounts.
(5) Consideration of the budget for the coming year.
(6) Resolutions brought forward by any individual member.
(7) Any other business with the permission of the president.
Section 8.07 General Rules of General Body Meetings:
(1) No resolution shall be placed in a general meeting that has not been properly circulated with the agenda of the meeting. Resolution placed by the individual members shall reach the secretary general before the notification of the meeting. Except that for which the meeting has been called for, no other business shall be discussed at a requisition meeting.
(2) Resolutions submitted to a general meeting shall be decided by a simple majority vote. Decision shall be taken in requisition meeting by at least two third of members present.
(3) If a resolution is neither adopted nor negotiated in a meeting, it shall not be reconsidered unless either 6 months have elapsed or at least 10 members of general body sign for reconsideration.
(4) Minutes of all general body meeting shall be correctly kept and shall be confirmed by the president for the next general meeting.
(5) The president of a meeting can adjourn it if more than half of the members present agree for adjournment. Only the unfinished business shall be transacted at the adjourned meeting.
(6) The proceedings of any meeting shall not be invalid by reason of being any vacancy or any invalid appointment or election of any member of the Executive Committee or accidental omission to give notice of such meeting to any member.
Article IX. Advisory Council: There shall be an Advisory Council consisting of senior and important persons.
Section 9.01 Formation of the Advisory Council: The advisors shall be nominated by the Executive Committee. Senior professor or equivalent doctor in haematology or closely related subject or any social worker who has a special interest to haematology and can help for the development in haematology in Bangladesh shall be sought for the post of advisor.
Section 9.02 Duties of the Advisors:
(1) The advisors will evaluate the activities of the Society, will express their advice and guidelines for the progressive development of the Society and will help the society in its activities according to their abilities.
(2) The advisors can attend in any meeting according to the decision and request of the Executive Committee to express their views and advices.
(3) The advisors if present in any meeting shall not be counted to the quorum and cannot vote for making any decision; however, if he/she is a member of the society, can cast the vote accordingly.
Article X. Executive Committee: This is the executive and representative authority and is responsible for implementing the policy and program of the Society as laid down by the general body.
Section 10.01 Duties and Power of the Executive Committee:
(1) The Executive Committee shall represent the Society on any matter related to the interest of the Society or the medical profession before the government or any other public bodies or any properly constituted authorities.
(2) The Executive Committee shall make and issue instructions for the proper functioning of the Society, for the maintenance of the office, library and properties, and for the organization and maintenance of its publications.
(3) The Executive Committee shall consider and decide the application for membership and the question of taking disciplinary action against any member, and can write off the whole or part of the arrears or outstanding dues against any member if considered justifiable.
(4) The Executive Committee can appoint various committees and sub-committees other than those elected by the general body and shall do it to achieve the objectives of the Society.
(5) The Executive Committee can frame, alter or repeal rules of the constitution subjected to the confirmation by the general body.
(6) The Executive Committee can appoint or terminate salaried employees of the Society and shall do it to achieve the objectives of the Society.
(7) The Executive Committee shall co-operate to the Commission in all aspects of the election procedure providing all logistic and financial support.
(8) The Executive Committee shall consider spending money and shall be empowered do this to achieve the objectives of the Society.
(9) The Executive Committee shall exercise all such power in addition to the power expressly confirmed on it by these rules and do all such acts and things as may be done by the Society.
Section 10.02 Composition of Executive Committee: The Executive Committee shall consist of the following twenty-three posts-
(1) President–1 (One)
(2) Vice- President-2 (Two)
(3) Secretary General-1(One)
(4) Joint Secretary – 2 (Two)
(5) Treasurer – 1 (One)
(6) Organizing Secretary – 1 (One)
(7) Scientific Affairs Secretary-1(One)
(8) International Affairs Secretary- 1 (One)
(9) Publicity and Publication Secretary- 1 (One)
(10) Office Secretary – 1 (One)
(11) Members: (a) Elected -7 (Seven), (b) Co-opted and Ex-Officio- 4 (four)
Section 10.03 Duties and power of the office bearers:
(a) The president shall preside all meetings of the general body and the executive committee but not necessarily for academic or scientific seminars, symposiums and convention.
(b) The president shall guide and control the activities of the Society in consultation with the executive committee.
(c) The president shall regulate the proceedings of the meetings and shall interpret the rules and regulations according to the constitution.
(d) The president, in addition to his/her regular vote, shall have a casting vote in case of equality of votes.
(a) In the absence of the President in a meeting, the Senior Vice-President and, in absence of Senior Vice-President, the Junior Vice-President shall chair the meeting.
(b) In the event of an emergency arising by absence or incapacity from any cause, the duties of the President shall develop upon the senior Vice-President and in his/her absence, on the Junior Vice-President or in the absence of both Vice-Presidents, on a member of the Executive Committee to be decided by the Executive Committee.
(c) In a long absence or incapacity of the President due to any cause, the senior Vice-President and, at the same condition of the senior Vice President, the Junior Vice President shall be the acting President for the rest of the term of the Executive Committee.
(3) Secretary General: With the help of the Joint Secretaries, the Secretary General shall do the followings-
(a) Shall be in-charge of the Central Office and shall conduct all correspondences.
(b) Shall organize or arrange and convene meeting, conferences, lectures and demonstrations
(c) Shall supervise accounts from the treasurer, pass all bills for payments and sign cheques for the expenditure.
(d) Along with the treasurer, shall prepare annual budget and financial statement for adoption at the General Body meeting.
(e) Shall bring any matter to the Executive Committee for guidance and decision if he/she considers necessary for the interest of the Society.
(4) Joint Secretaries:
(a) Shall help the Secretary General in all aspects.
(b) In a long absence or incapacity of Secretary General due to any cause, the first Joint Secretary and, his/her absence or incapacity, the second Joint Secretary shall be in-charge.
(a) Shall be responsible to keep an up to date account of Society and to audit it by an authorized auditor.
(b) Shall receive all money and sign cheque for the expenditure.
(c) Shall have the right to point out an error or discrepancy in the order of payment by the Secretary General and refer the order back to him/her remarks. In the event of any disagreement persisting between the Secretary General and the treasurer, the matter shall be referred to the President for the final decision.
(d) Shall prepare periodic statement of accounts of the Society to be placed before the Executive Committee, and shall prepare an annual statement of accounts and balance sheet to put it for adoption at the General Body meeting.
(6) Organizing Secretary:
(a) Shall maintain a correct and up to date register of all members of the Society and shall collect the member subscription fee.
(b) Shall help the Secretary General to organize the Society in furtherance of the cause of the Society.
(7) Scientific Affairs Secretary: Shall maintain and manage all the scientific, academic and educational acitivity of the society.
(8) International Affairs Secretary: Shall maintain all sorts of international correspondencesregarding the activity of the society.
(9) Publicity and Publication Affairs Secretary: Shall maintain and manage the publications of the society including books, leaflets, news, journals and other documents in print and electronic system.
(10) Office Secretary: Shall maintain all of the office documents and record the minutes and proceedings of all meetings of the General Body and the Executive Committee to help the general secretary in all official proceedings.
Section 10.04 General Rules and Procedure for Executive Committee Meeting:
(1) It shall meet at least once in every quarter of the year.
(2) At least seven days’ notice of the meeting shall be given to all members stating the place, date and time of the meeting and the agenda of the business to be transacted. In emergencies, a shorter notice shall be allowed at the discretion of the President, but in no case it shall be less than 24 hours.
(3) The quorum for the meetings shall be two third of the total number of the Executive Committee.
(4) Minutes of all the meetings shall correctly be kept and shall duly be confirmed at the following meeting.
(5) The Chairman of the meeting may adjourn a meeting if deemed necessary, particularly, if the majority of the members present are in favour of adjournment. At the adjourned meeting, only the unfinished business of the meeting shall be transacted.
(6) Resolutions sponsored by the individual members shall reach the Secretary General at least 2 days before the meetings.
(7) The Chairman shall in case of equal number of votes in favour and against a motion have a casting vote.
(8) Any resolution can be discussed in the meeting with the permission of the Chairman.
Article XI. Election of the Executive Committee:
Section 11.01 Election Commission: The election of the Executive Committee shall be conducted by an Election Commission which shall consist of three or more members. The members of the Commission will be nominated by the Executive committee and the most senior member will be its chairman. The commission shall be independent to conduct the election and shall declare its result. Any of the members of the commission can only be removed by resignation or by the General Body.
Section 11.02 Obligation for Formation of the Commission: The Executive Committee shall be elected for a period of two years. The president shall be responsible for arranging an Executive Committee meeting for the formation of the Commission at least two months before the cessation of his/her tenure. In his/her failure, the senior vice-president shall be responsible for the next one and half months, and in the failure of the senior vice-president in such, the junior vice president shall be responsible for the next one and half months to arrange such meeting. In the failure of all of the president and vice presidents or of the Executive Committee, the Executive Committee shall be automatically dissolved and then any ten members can call for a requisition meeting of the General Body to make a Commission.
Section 11.03 Voter List: The voter list shall consist of all the general and life members of the Society. This shall be prepared and published by the Commission with names of the members enrolled in the member register at least 45 days before the date of election.
Section 11.04 Eligibility to Be an Office Bearer:
(1) The posts of the office bearer shall be reserved for the life members only and must have been a member for at least one year at the time of submitting the nomination.
(2) No one in receipt of a salary or honorarium from the funds of the Society can be elected as a Member of the Executive Committee.
(3) At the time of submission of nomination paper, the President and the Secretary General candidates shall have to achieve the degree in haematology at least ten and eight years before, respectively.
(4) A person cannot be the president or the secretary general for more than two consequent terms. A person may be eligible for the same post of the president or the secretary general once again after a gap of at least two terms.
(5) The members of the Commission shall be barred from seeking election during his/her tenure in the Commission.
Section 11.05 Procedure of Election:
(1) Notice of the Election: A notice of the election stating the date and place fixed for the election shall be given by the Commission to all members at least forty-five (45) days before the date of election.
(2) Nomination and Candidate List: The nomination papers for candidature in the prescribed form from the eligible candidate duly proposed and seconded by a member of Society must reach the Commission at least thirty (30) days before the date of election after which no nomination paper shall be accepted. The Commission shall scrutinize the nomination papers and publish the list of eligible candidates at least twenty (25) days before the date of election. Any candidate can withdraw his/her name from the candidature twenty (20) days before the date of election by submitting a withdrawal letter in a prescribed form to the Commission. The final list of the contesting candidates should be published at least fifteen (15) days before the date of election.
(3) Place and Time of Casting Vote: The casting of vote may be on the day of general body meeting in its place or as decided by the election commission.
(4) Procedure of Casting Vote: The office bearers of the Executive Committee shall be elected by the voters by secret ballot voting only. The casting of vote may be on spot voting or by post or online as it is suitable as decided by the Commission. The postal or online or other distant casting of vote must reach to the Commission at least before the closure time of Election.
(5) Co-opted and Ex-Officio Members: With a view to implement the policy and program of the Society, another four members shall be nominated. The immediate past president and the secretary general shall be ex-officio members and the rest of such members shall be selected by the elected Executive Committee.
(6) Determination of Seniority: In case of the posts to be elected or nominated for more than one person, the seniority among them shall be determined according to their seniority of achieving the degree in haematology.
(7) Informing to the Registration Authority: The newly elected Executive Committee shall be sent to the registration authority of the government of Bangladesh within 15 (fifteen) days for their information and necessary action.
Section 11.06 Election Dispute:
(1) An election tribunal for any dispute shall comprise of the immediate past president, immediate past secretary general and the chairman of the Commission. In case of any member of involved in such a dispute shall be barred from becoming a member of the tribunal; in that case, the most senior person of the outgoing Executive Committee shall fill up his place.
(2) The election tribunal shall give a verdict on the basis of a simple majority of the opinion of the members of tribunal, and the decision of the tribunal shall be final.
Article XII. Income, Assets and Expenditure:
Section 12.01 Income: The income or assets of the Society are the cash or kinds in possession obtained in the following manner:
(1) Membership subscription, grant/donation from any source, sale proceeds from any book, journal or other publications or any movable property.
(2) Purchased, taken on lease, hired, otherwise acquired, or hold movable or immovable property of every description as is felt necessary or convenient by the Society.
(3) Investment of any amount not immediately required and determined and made by the Society.
(4) Honorarium received for any special service provided by the Society to the patients of haematological or related diseases.
(5) Requests received by legacies from persons who desire to benefit the Society.
(6) Subscriptions from the affiliated bodies.
(7) Money or properties obtained from other sources, project or programme approved and preferred by the Executive Committee and the registration authority.
(8) In case of foreign donation, the society shall follow the Foreign Donation Ordinance, 1978.
Section 12.02 Expenditure: All expenditure should be permitted and passed by the executive committee. The expenditure can be the following-
(1) Routine office expenditure, publication and related expenditure, and purchase of other necessary items or property.
(2) Remuneration to any officer or any other permanent or part-time employee of the Society.
(3) Expenditure made to create, improve and keep in repair of any building or buildings for the purpose of the Society.
(4) Any other expenditure for the interest of the Society seems feasible and justified.
Section 12.03 Accounts:
(1) The treasurer shall receive all money that shall be deposited in a schedule bank or banks approved by the Executive Committee. The account shall be in the name of the Society and shall be operated jointly by the president, the secretary general and the treasurer.
(2) The Executive Committee may open a separate fund for the journal of the Society that may be operated jointly by the editor and the treasurer or secretary general.
(3) The statement of audited income and expenditure shall be presented to the general meeting by the treasurer or the secretary general.
Section 12.04 Audit and appointment of Auditor: A registered accountant farm shall be appointed by the General Body for auditing the accounts of the Society and its journal and other publications and his/her remuneration shall be fixed by the Executive Committee or it shall be audited by the respective social welfare officer according to the existing government rule. This audit shall be done annually and the statement of audited account shall be sent to the registration authority.
Article XIII. Journals: There shall be a journal of the Society, published regularly under the management of the editorial board.
Section 13.01 Editorial Board: The Editorial Board shall be nominated by the Executive Committee and should consist of editor and other members as decided by the Executive Committee.
Section 13.02 Advisory Committee: This committee shall consist of senior persons with outstanding academic, clinical and scientific ability, not necessarily to be a member of the Society. The advisory committee should look after the policy of the journal and advise the editor and the editorial board regarding academic, administrative and financial aspects of the journal. The selection and number of such persons will be decided upon by the Executive Committee.
Article XIV. Affiliations: For the furtherance of its aims and objectives, the Society shall have the right to affiliate or be affiliated to any international, national or regional association, Society or scientific organization either in Bangladesh or abroad, on terms mutually decided upon and approved by the General Body. The members of affiliated bodies shall be reciprocally entitled to such privileges as agreed upon. The Society may terminate such affiliation after due notice on either side by resolution passed at the general body after consideration of the report by the executive committee.
Article XV. Amendments and Alterations in the Constitution:
Section 15.01 Proposal: Proposal for any change in the constitution shall reach the central office at least 3 months before the general meeting of the General Body. This proposal shall be circulated to all members of the Society for opinion at least 6 weeks before the proposed annual meeting. Opinions on the proposed amendments must reach the secretary general 3 weeks before the general meeting. The secretary general shall place the amendment proposal in original along with the comments from the members and the recommendations of the executive committee on the proposal to the General Body for discussion and decision.
Section 15.02 Decision: If two third majorities of the members attending the meeting of the General Body vote for alteration of the proposal, the proposal shall be deemed to be accepted. The approved amendment shall be submitted to the registration authority of the government of Bangladesh to inform them and to take necessary action.
Article XVI. Dissolution of the Society: On the basis of any specified reason, the society can be dissolved if two-third of life members of the society agree. The General Body shall take decision about the debts and liabilities of the society during dissolution before taking such decision of dissolution. The decision of dissolution shall have to be submitted to the registration authority to inform them and to take necessary action.
Article XVII. Precedence of the Rules and Regulations: Whatever present in this constitution shall be predominated by the rules according to the 46th ordinance of 1961.